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Iaosatae (Celtic Slingers)

Iaosatae (Yo-sah-tie; "Slingmen") are a varied lot, some young and some old, who've been educated in the art of sling combat. They're quite skilled with their slings, which are truly a deceptively simple weapon. A sling bullet, when slung by a skilled man, will bury itself inside of its target, or break bones. Either way, the one hit is incapacitated or dead. Impressive for what amounts to a leather strip and a rock. The sling is also inexpensive, and with an impressive range. This allows Iaosatae to be both effective and affordable. However, when the distance between them and the enemy is closed, their low expense is quickly made up for in the ease of their breaking and fleeing, as, armed with only light weapons, they are not intended to fight hand-to-hand.

Historically, the Iaosatae would have been a variety of warriors, mostly young men though with little experience in close combat. Few older men continued to use the sling, it would generally be replaced by a spear or sword, but it never fell out of favor with younger men, who could use it for war, games, and hunting. However, their youthfulness, and lack of experience with the grimmer face of combat, makes them prone to run, because, after all, a man fifty meters away with a sword looks a lot different two meters away. Making matters worse for them, their inexperience in close combat means they probably aren't as hardy as other warriors, with more experience fighting in long engagements. Slings were popular with levy warriors in all of Celtic culture, as it didn't take long to train one in the basics, and skilled slingers who went on to become somewhat elite professionals were often well-versed in both sling and short spear combat, meaning an experienced group of Iaosatae would double as impromptu light infantry.

Sotaroas (Celtic Archers)

Celtic archers, Sotaroas (Sow-tah-rows, "Bow Soldiers"), while not great or exceptional, are good. They are well trained, disciplined, and can put a fair deal of range behind their attacks. While their arrows aren't too notable, their ability to swiftly pepper an enemy with arrows is always of use. They are not really meant to defeat an enemy force, or even truly damage one, so much as they are meant to irritate and draw attention away from a main force, so it can position itself for flanking. As such, they are good runners, who fire a few volleys as a distraction, and then withdraw to a safe position to hide. If caught in a melee, they would be slaughtered for sure.

Historically, archers in Celtic culture had little variety, with only a few truly notable types of archers. They were irritative forces, and intended to soften large enemy forces, but rarely meant to be truly effective in the manner of eastern archers. However, if positioned properly, or experienced enough, they could be truly devastating. Their skill was good, they could fire many volleys swiftly. The Celtic concept of archery was more often to simply blacken the sky with arrows, than it was to fire few, effective volleys. However, their arrows were well made, though not great, and would be capable of puncturing lighter armors, and were quite deadly in their own right. All the same, these men were better off as hunters than field warriors.

Lugoae (Celtic Levy Spearmen)

During periods of strife and war, it is necessary sometimes to call upon ordinary citizens to organize as militia. Militia in Celtic societies, called Lugoae (Lug-oo-ay; "Levy Troops"), are farmers, craftsmen, fishermen, and so on, called to brief military service in periods of crisis. They may train a few times a year to fight, and games and sports encourage a decent level of physicality, but they're still only militia, and can only be trusted to do so much.

Historically, the Celts, being a warrior culture, encouraged their people to engage in sports and games that would increase their physical strength and preparedness for war. This doesn't mean everyone was a warrior though. Those not in the warrior class would be levied into warbands at times, or form their own militias in their towns to defend themselves from outsiders and act as a type of early police force. Their weapons and equipment would be whatever they could afford personally, usually simple hunting implements, such as a hunter's spear, and a shield.

Bataroas (Northern Gallic Swordsmen)

The Bataroas hail from a region the Romans call Transalpine Gaul (Gaul the other side of the Alps). Raised from the Celtic Warrior Class, these Gauls are proud and experienced fighters who often value feats of impetuous valour over acts of more prudent common sense.

Despite a Celtic propensity to become easily discouraged when faced with determined opposition and to suffer under a hot sun, an unwary foe will soon be parted with their head. The Celts are large men and the Bataroas use their strength to hurl their spears at great distances before closing with their long swords.

Botroas (Southern Gallic Swordsmen)

The Botroas (Boat-rows, "Sword Soldiers") are the basic medium infantry of southern Briton and Cisalpine Gaul. They are well trained, with a fair amount of experience, and good quality swords, with javelins to soften an enemy before a charge. Like near all Celtic warriors, they are loyal to a tribal head, who is himself loyal to numerous mounting tiers of nobles, leading to the king. These form the core of the southern armies. Like most Celtic shock infantry, the brunt of their attack is in the charge.

Historically, the Botroas were the younger professional warriors of southern Briton and Cisalpine Gallic tribes. Their lack of armor would leave them vulnerable, but they had great mobility, and their youthfulness included a desire to prove themselves to their people, making them somewhat lacking in fear, or, perhaps, simply more afraid of disgrace than they are of death. The southern Briton warriors looked a great deal like the Cisalpine Gallic swordsmen, and fought in much the same manner.

Gaeroas (Celtic Spearmen)

Gaeroas (Guy-rows; "Spear Soldiers") are the file warriors of the tribes of Gaul and Britain. The Gaeroas all utilize well-made long spears, and a few decent javelins, making them both fair melee warriors and impromptu skirmishers. Their versatility, and low relative expense, mean they are a fine warrior band for enterprising warlords looking to expand their lands. They have some experience with combat, but are not yet hardened to battle. However, they are trained well enough to march in a good formation, something actually lost on greater warriors for the Britons. Their longspears may seem a bit unwieldy, but this is likely to help them in combating cavalry and chariot horses as a unit. While unarmored, they have large oval shields, which provides them a good amount of protection. They are fairly well trained with these shields, and they provide a fair amount of protection from ranged attacks, but the lack of armor makes them quite vulnerable to flanking.

Historically, spearmen in Britain and Gaul would have been the young to middle-age warriors, who had not risen greatly in prestige, or who had chosen to continue to fight as a lower warrior. They would use well-made, but not truly exceptional spears, and javelins for skirmishing. This allowed their most basic warriors to perform two duties, and allocate other soldiers to more specialized positions. Their equipment would be self maintained, and they would be expected to keep their weapons and shield in good condition. They likely paid for their own equipment, but spears and javelins are relatively cheap, the most expensive part of their equipment was likely the shield. These warriors represent the most basic professional warriors of almost all of the aforementioned tribes. They would be highly viable for the warchief who couldn't afford to bring in many swords or other weapons for his tribe.

Uirodusios (Celtic Naked Spearmen)

The Uirodusios (Oo-row-doo-see-os; 'Man-Demons') fight in the ancient Celtic style, stripped nude but for his torc, anklets, and bangles, and sometimes a cloak. Though poorly defended, and not nearly as skilled as the Gaesatae mercenaries of Gaul, nor on drugs, they are still formidable and present a frightening visage that unnerves enemies. These are not so much an elite as they are often only somewhat experienced warriors who wish to increase their fame by daring acts of bravery.

Historically, some Celtic warriors fought stripped nude. This had a few effects; it was unnerving to enemies, inspiring to friends, and also helped increase one's fame; an important matter in Celtic warrior society. The skill of such men would vary depending, logically, on how long they'd been fighting in such a way, but it would likely offer superior mobility compared to alternative methods of combat, allowing them to manuever more swiftly in a melee. Such warriors would stand out in the front of a line to encourage other soldiers and to be the first to engage the enemy.

Cidainh (Celtic Chariots)

Celtic Cidainh (Kid-unk; Chariots) are an ancient vehicle of war. While soon to fall out of use in Gaul, the Cidainh are very popular in the southern tribes of the Britons, who mingle often with the Belgae, who introduced this type of chariot. The Cidainh is driven into battle, with a warrior riding on the back, who pelts the enemy with javelins. A Cidainh provides rider and driver some modest amount of protection, but the impact they can have in a battle makes them an important target for enemy forces. The mobility of the Cidainh is a bit limited, they have a wide turning radius, making them less mobile than cavalry, but their role as highly mobile skirmishers, with a well armored rider who can focus purely on the enemy, and not having to drive, leaves them with some good practical use.

Historically, chariots in Gaul were falling out of favor, replaced steadily by more mobile cavalry. However, they would still be used at least as late as 230 BC. In Britain, however, the Britons did not face many enemies that would force them to reconsider the role of chariots in then modern warfare. Instead, they would refine the chariots, and continue to employ them for a very long time. The chariots of the southern Britons were almost identical to those of Gaul, as they were both heavily influenced by La Tene culture, which inspired the bronze fixtures and hubs. These were generally more stable chariots than the more northern, Halstatt-style chariots. Traditionally, a Celtic chariot was driven to a battle, and the warrior could pelt the enemy at a distance, then dismount the chariot and engage the opposition on foot, without the slightest amount of exhaustion. If the battle went awry, the chariot would return, the warrior would remount, and ride away from the fight.

Golberi Curoas (Northern Gallic Mercenary Swordsmen)

The La Tene Celts were used as mercenaries all over Europe and Africa by the Romans, Carthaginians, other Celts, and various peoples. These men often form the core of a mercenary army, and are usually tough veterans who have seen many different campaigns and have taken pay from many different masters. They are an excellent heavy infantry, well able to deal with most opponents. They are armed with javelins and spears and use these javelins to break up an enemy formation before the charge. As with most Celts, the charge can become disorderly, but it often succeeds in breaking through the enemy line none-the-less. Their name, Curoas (Koo-roo-as) means "Paid Soldiers".

Historically, Celtic mercenaries were used all over the ancient world. Graves and artifacts have been found even into Asia. Celts were rightly famed for their ferocity in battle, as well as a number of innovations in arms and armor development. There were many Celts willing to leave their tribes and serve other masters in exchange for wealth. This made them somewhat untrustworthy, willing to flee if a battle went poorly, as they didn't fight for honor or glory, but money, and money was useless if one was dead. The La Tene Celts actually encompassed a number of sub-cultures, most notably Gaul, but also the Lugians, Belgae, most Britons, and others. This meant that in much of Europe, Celtic warriors were never far away, and so, for the wealthy general, he could have always had at least some heavy infantry on hand.

Enoci Curoas (Southern Gallic Mercenary Swordsmen)

The La Tene Celts were used as mercenaries all over Europe and Africa by the Romans, Carthaginians, other Celts, and various peoples. These men often form the core of a mercenary army, and are usually tough veterans who have seen many different campaigns and have taken pay from many different masters. They are an excellent heavy infantry, well able to deal with most opponents. They are armed with javelins and spears and use these javelins to break up an enemy formation before the charge. As with most Celts, the charge can become disorderly, but it often succeeds in breaking through the enemy line none-the-less. Their name, Curoas (koo-roo-as) means "Paid Soldiers".

Historically, Celtic mercenaries were used all over the ancient world. Graves and artifacts have been found even into Asia. Celts were rightly famed for their ferocity in battle, as well as a number of innovations in arms and armor development. There were many Celts willing to leave their tribes and serve other masters in exchange for wealth. This made them somewhat untrustworthy, willing to flee if a battle went poorly, as they didn't fight for honor or glory, but money, and money was useless if one was dead. The La Tene Celts actually encompassed a number of sub-cultures, most notably Gaul, but also the Lugians, Belgae, most Britons, and others. This meant that in much of Europe, Celtic warriors were never far away, and so, for the wealthy general, he could have always had at least some heavy infantry on hand.

Gaesatae (Gallic "Naked Fanatic" Infantry)

The Gaesatae (Guy-sah-tay; "Spearmen") are easily one of the most fearsome groups of warriors in the known world. They fight stripped bare but for neck torcs and sometimes their shoes or boots. They fight with longswords, but are named for their incredible skill with javelins; they can hurl them unnaturally long distances and deal great damage with them. Their charge is most ferocious though, causing many lines to simply fold and flee. This is not all solely due to skill and strength, though they are experienced and huge, muscular men. They imbibe a chemical before battle making them seemingly impervious to pain. They will fight to the very end, and are very destructive when employed properly.

Historically, the Gaesatae were Gallic naked religious fanatics. Their skill was a source of terror, and their frightful appearance shook many. Most horrifying, even beyond their size and skill and terrifying cries, was their seeming invincibility. A chemical they used allowed them to brush off and ignore any pain. They were remarked to do things such as rip javelins that had struck them free from their bodies, and hurl them back, and continue to fight with gashes and wounds that would have surely fell a normal man. They were Hannibal's favored Gallic mercenaries, and were used as his personal guards, as they were so devoted and trustworthy, as well as brave and skilled.

Teceitos (Celtic Axemen)

The Teceitos (Tek-ee-tos; Axe Soldiers) are a facet of a Celtic army that is not written about as much as their swords and spears, but many Celtic warriors were buried with axes, particularly in Britain and eastern Europe. The axe is a fine weapon, able to do great damage, even through armor. One can actually strike a man in a mail shirt, not damage the mail itself, but kill the wearer by the sheer amount of blunt trauma dealt to the foe's internal organs. As such, armor stands little chance against these men. They wear leather or padded vests and bronze or iron helmets to help protect themselves. They are light enough to move swiftly over the battlefield, allowing them to flank heavy infantry, and strike them from the sides or flanks. Coupled with their axes and javelins, they are especially valuable at breaking up heavy infantry; they make a great asset to chariots particularly, following the chariots into breaches in the enemy heavy infantry, and cutting open the gaps wider.

Historically, Celts were, by the late La Tene, mostly recorded using spears and swords. However, in some regions, Britain and Ireland particularly, the axe was still used, and has been found in numerous burials and hordes, and axes are depicted on Caesar's coins of weapons and armor of defeated Gauls. This should not come as a surprise. The axe is easy to make, cost effective, and can be used to defeat armor or shieldwalls. The Celtic axe is not necessarily the largest of axes, but Celtic metalwork is skilled, so their heads are most likely of good quality, and upkeep would be easy for a Celtic warrior, by himself or with attendants. The head would surely keep a good edge, and even without one, a blunt edged axe can still be used to savagely hack a foe apart without the fear of it breaking like a blunted sword.

Misthophoroi Keltohellenikoi Hoplitai (Mercenary Celto-Hellenic Infantry)

These shock infantry are Celto-Hellenic 'men-at-arms', Celtic warriors of a mixed culture. Celts have long held an affinity for Hellenic society, or at least, certain aspects of it. These men have held more than a slight one though. While they are not of especially great station, they are sufficient warriors, fighting in the Celtic manner, in a motley combination of Hellenic and Celtic gear and dress; long Celtic shields, a Greek helmet, and a Celtic spear and javelins. They soften up an opponent with their javelins and charge an enemy once they're weakened with the great brunt and force of Celtic warriors.

Historically, Celts were at times genuinely fond of the Greeks and their society, though not often so much as to adopt their culture wholesale. However, some did adopt more than others, such as the Celtic graves around Massila and in Galatia with Celtic warriors buried in Greek clothes, with a mixture of Hellenic and Celtic objects, and evidence of Greek-speaking Celts existing in such areas. They would fight for themselves, other Celts, and, in the true mercenary nature of many Celts and Greeks alike, for those who could afford to reward them properly.

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